Thursday, December 26, 2019
Ã¢â¬Å"The Second Amendment is timeless for our Founders grasped that self-defense is three-fold: every free individual must protect themselves against the evil will of the man, the mob and the state.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â Tiffany Madison Gun control has been the essential matter in the United States of America for some time presently. Gun control is a painstaking argument of the significance of established gun law and Second Amendment. The transformation between previous years and the current time, in which the Amendment was drafted and how the severely increased the killing power of modern firearms, makes suggestions to the laws constructed two centuries ago obsolescent. As Americans citizens we have the right to the Second Amendment which says Ã¢â¬Å" A well regulated militia, being necessary to the security of a free state the right of the people to keep and bear arms, shall not infringedÃ¢â¬ . (Where) Our fore fathers came to a decision point, to take a stance against the British government and to create a new government that had their own set of regulations, justifications and guidelines. Because the fore fathers were not willing to work with the British Monarch a blood bath ensued. As the riot came to a finished, our fore fathers celebration included the firing of combat and artilleries. The forefathers believed every man should have the basic right to own a firearm, so they decided to establish a bill. There are already ten basic rights we have as American citizens which include: pursuit ofShow MoreRelatedGun Issue And Gun Control1401 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesUniversity, Gun Politics has been a course I have aspired to take. While many enroll in such a course looking for an escape from the Ã¢â¬Å"collegiate liberal echo chamberÃ¢â¬ or as an outlet for their conservative agendas, I saw the class as an Ã¢â¬Å"entrance to the dark side.Ã¢â¬ My views on guns prior to the class were, I would call, polarized yet uninformed. In most of my discussions, I would cite the Australian 1996 National Firearms Agreement as precedent for how American politicians should approach the gun issueRead MoreThe Issue Of Gun Control Essay1646 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagessomebody who wants to inflict harm on other people to get his or her hands on a gun.Ã¢â¬ (Simple Minded Gun Control). Gun control is a controversial issue worldwide. The reason why this has attracted so much attention is because not everyone is in favor of gun control and each side brings up excellent points about the issue. Research related to this issue strongly supports the claim that there SHOULD be more gun control laws. Three arguments that prove this position are (1) Incidents like Sandy HookRead MoreThe Issue Of Gun Control1489 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagessplit on the issue of gun control. We have seen many violent shootings and innocent people dying because of gun violence. Some Americans believe we need strict gun laws to protect our children and ourselves from these horrific tragedies. Other Americans believes it is our rights as Americans to possesÃ¢â¬â¢ guns and we are entitled to that right in our constitution. There are also some Americans that are stuck in the middle and can see both sides but recent events have definitely caused this issue to be inRead MoreThe Issue Of Gun Control1031 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesintegrate them in a way that will trigger a new viewpoint on the subject. Gun control is something that should be enforced across the world in order to save lives. In the United States there is a ratio of 88.8 guns per one hundred persons (GunPolicy.org). Those numbers award us with the highest total per capita number in the world. With that amount of firepower there needs to be an efficient way to regulate who exactly can purchase a gun. Since 1791 when the second amendment was ratified there have beenRead MoreThe Issue Of Gun Control1705 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesaway without pr eface or reason. All someone needs to do is pull the trigger. In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s world, guns are far too accessible to the people of society. We hear in the news, stories of mass shootings, homicides, and suicides; most of which are caused by the activation of a gun. A hot-button issue, gun control is one of the most debated topics in American politics. Should we, or should we not, be able to own guns? Although it infringes on the Second Amendment that provides the right to bear arms, this amendmentRead MoreThe Issue Of Gun Control951 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesGun control has been a big topic for the past decade in the united states. These debates will rise and fall time in and time out after something horrific happens in the state. Anti-Gun supporters do not realize that it is extremely difficult to regulate something in the states that is a big portion of our economy.Would stricter gun laws change anything? So far statistically It has been proven otherwise one must consider how a citiz en would defend themselves when they are faced with terror. How willRead MoreThe Issue Of Gun Control929 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesGun Control Getting arrested yesterday was not the highlight of my week. I was hungry; so I went to Wal-Mart get some charcoal, lighter fluid, and steak. I put the charcoal in the grill and the lighter fluid on the coals. I got a little lighter fluid on my arm, but I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t pay it much attention. I lit the match and threw it on the coals. I looked down and my sleeve was on fire. I was waving my arm in the air, trying to put it out. Then here they come the police pulled in and tackled me to theRead MoreThe Issue Of Gun Control1552 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe issue of gun is always controversial. Firearm can be used as defending or an assaulting weapon. In United States, firearm increase the rate of homicide, suicide and gun violence, which can harm and murder people. Moreover, taking away peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s gun will not work effectively because the murder and criminal will find another ways to get guns. Also, the black market will appear for the people who cannot get guns from regulated market s. In addition, if regulated guns are banned, murderers may useRead MoreThe Issue Of Gun Control1678 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesJanuary 2014 The 2nd Amendment Over the past few years, the issue of gun control has been widely discussed. You surely have heard the phrase, Ã¢â¬Å"Guns donÃ¢â¬â¢t kill people, people kill peopleÃ¢â¬ uttered and i wholeheartedly support this statement. It is important to treat guns responsibly so they do not end up in the wrong hands. I believe gun control violates our inalienable rights. Another piece of our liberty will surely be taken away if guns are banned, and socialism and totalitarianism will be rightRead MoreThe Issue Of Gun Control1208 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesWill Christopherson Traverson English 2 1 March 2017 Gun Control The United States has 88.8 guns per 100 people, or about 270,000,000 guns, which is the highest total and per capita number across the globe. The current public gun control debate in the United States seems to be placed on standby until it is sparked up by a major mass shooting. There were at least 126 mass shootings between January 2000 and July 2014.(pro). Opponents of more gun laws accuse supporters of using a horrific event to further
Wednesday, December 18, 2019
The objective of this lab was to observe how surface conditions affected Temperature, moisture, and wind. II. Methods: The materials that were used to complete this lab was an instruction packet, probe thermometer, IR gun, the Kestrel weather instrument, and a finger. III. Results: For this lab my classmates and I all had to go to different locations to collect the data that was needed. Some of us were out in the sun, others were in the shade so we all got different answers on our sheet. For my location I was out in front of the Center for Environmental and Life Sciences (CELS). At that location we looked at three sub location for our data, there were the grass, mulch, and rocks. The sites had many characteristics but the three that my group choose to focus on was the location had direct sun light that happened to be shining from the right side. The wind was blowing at CELS but it felt like it had a tunnel breeze. The last thing that we said was it had a very diverse landscape. We also gave characteristics for the three sub locations that we observed. For number one we looked at the grass and it was yellow with wet soil. Number two was the mulch and it was black, brown, and dry. Number three was the rocks and they were large, smooth, and greyish. The character istics of the three sub locations affected out data in many different ways. For my three locations the surface temperature was greater than the air temperature. I would expect that because the surface is absorbingShow MoreRelatedPhs 113 Mid Term2083 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pages(8pts) Draw the atmosphereÃ¢â¬â¢s vertical temperature profile from the surface to about 75 miles high. Clearly label the different layers and the boundaries between the layers. (Be sure to properly label the axes of your graph). 3. (9pts) Discuss three different types of Ã¢â¬Å"apparent temperatureÃ¢â¬ . (Do not give three examples of the same type of apparent temperature). For each type, explain why the Ã¢â¬Å"how-it-feelsÃ¢â¬ temperature differs from the actual air temperature. 1. Due to the serious effects on yourRead MoreWhat Are Droughts? Droughts1645 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesprecipitation over a district for a period of time), hydrological drought (a period with insufficient surface and sub-surface water assets), agricultural drought (a period with declining soil dampness and ensuing crop failure because of absence of surface water resources) or socio-economic drought (failure of water resources systems to meet water demands, which affects human activities both directly and indirectly). How droughts occur? Most droughts occur when regular weather patterns are interrupted, causingRead MoreDrinking Water Is An Adjective1270 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesrather than freeze water, sell water, wash with water. And if the water is for the act of drinking, then who gets to drink, when can they drink, and where can they drink? Such ambiguity is entirely appropriate for one of the few human actions and conditions that are truly universal. Some people choose to eat red meat; some eat only fish; some eat no meat at all. But everyone drinks water. And, though a clear liquid, it contains many meanings. While nothing could seem simpler than a clear glass of waterRead MoreEvaporationin Our Daily Life1943 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesdynamics. Weather dynamics is the study of how the motion of water and air cause weather patterns. Our Global weather systems are reflections of our atmosphere and its make up. Weather systems react to the temperature, humidity, and atmospheric pressure. These three control systems are affected by one simple process, evaporation. Evaporation is the conversion of liquid water directly into its vapor or gaseousstate. Through evaporation, water from the surface is transferred straight into the atmosphereRead MoreDeforestation Effects On Amazon Forest Resilience1725 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pageswater cycle, soil sustainability, and trees stability. There is a chain reaction due to deforestation. Deforestation leads to decrease in biotic pump disrupting the water cycle leading to a decrease in transpiration and increase in temperature. Such rise in temperature leads to lack of rainfall to the forest and increase droughts and forest fires to which fires will disrupt the water cycle even more. Deforestation effects on Amazon forest resilience (Zemp et al. 2017) build upon previous researchRead More Climate Change Essay1636 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesin the atmosphere causes the global temperature to increase. Globally, average temperatures are expected to increase between 1.5 to 6.1 degrees Celsius in the next hundred years. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp; Climate change will have significant impacts on the global temperature such as an increase in temperature, change in weather patterns and sea-level rise. Sea-level is expected to rise 95 cm by the year 2100, with large local differences due to tides, wind and atmospheric pressure patterns, changesRead MoreThe Theory Of Philip And De Vries6584 Words Ã |Ã 27 Pagesinteractions between liquid water, water vapour, and heat movement were reported by Philip and de Vries (1957), who provided a mathematical description of liquid water and water vapour fluxes in soils driven by both pressure head (isothermal) and soil temperature (thermal) gradients. They derived the governing flow equation for non-isothermal flow as an extension of the Richards equation, which originally considered only the pressure head gradient. The theory of Philip and de Vries (1957) was later extendedRead MoreEffects And Damages Caused By Global Warming1151 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesthe Ohio River Valley which in turn has affected agriculture, compromised water sources, contributed to health issues amongst the population, affected the current energy supply and has caused extreme weather events. In a nutshell, carbon dioxide (CO2) from cars, industries and power plants trap heat near the earth s surface. More heat means more energy. Adding so much energy to the atmosphere creates the potential for more weather extremes, including wind storms, heatwaves and droughts, and rainRead MoreWhat Makes El Nino?2005 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagesatmosphere mixes with the water and creates a moisture in the air creating a low pressure system. A high pressure system is created when the cold water reduces the air above it. During a low pressure system the air becomes moist and can create severe tropical storms, on the other hand when there is a high pressure system the cold dry air goes back down and takes away all of the moisture. When combined this can create a high and low pressure forcing the wind in the atmosphere to blow low and the higherRead MoreFactors That Influence Rainfall in the United States2113 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagesin the United States or basically anywhere in the world depend s on several factors such as ground elevation, wind directions, location within a continental mass, areas of low pressure, cool fronts, jet streams and even mountain ranges. For instance mountains have an influence on wind and wind is an important feature in rainfall, Ã¢â¬Å"The windward sides of mountainous islands in the trade wind regime are among the rainiest places on earth, where rains exceed the regional oceanic precipitation by several
Monday, December 9, 2019
Wyrd is most easily described as continuous events happening around those that believe. It is also understood that the notion of wyrd meant that all of the events that occured in oneÃ¢â¬â¢s life affected the others [events]. Throughout the epic, Beowulf, wyrd appears to be a great influence. In some aspects wyrd is slightly similar to fate or destiny and incorporates free will, but the concept, as a practice of heathens, seems to contradict some Christian beliefs. Fate is defined as the development of events that are beyond control; events predetermined by a Ã¢â¬Å"supernatural powerÃ¢â¬ . Destiny, similarly, is defined as a sort of Ã¢â¬Å"hidden powerÃ¢â¬ that chooses what will occur in the future. Wyrd is similar to both of these terms in that is has much to do with the course of events in oneÃ¢â¬â¢s life and what the future has in store for them. However, the ideas of fate and destiny seem to be unstoppable while wyrd seemingly allows individuals to make their own choices knowing that their past and present choices will affect their future. We will write a custom essay sample on Wyrd in Beowulf or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Another contradiction with fate/destiny, is the fact that wyrd permits the alteration of predetermined occurrences through courageous deeds. Unfortunately, this is only permitted if a person is not already doomed (l. 572). If doomed, it is said that no amount of courage could save an individual from the course of events that he has made for himself; in this instance one must just reach acceptance of their future. With the idea of wyrd being that the events one chooses for themselves affect their future choices and therefore their future altogether, it is obvious that free will is a big part of wyrd. Yes, maybe wyrd has put you under the circumstances that it wants you to be in, but how you handle those circumstances is entirely up to you; this is where free will comes into play. It is analogous to the idea that aspects of intelligence are inheritedÃ¢â¬âyou may have been Ã¢â¬Å"givenÃ¢â¬ great intelligence, now you get to choose what youÃ¢â¬â¢re going to with it all. This is seen in Beowulf when Beowulf receives his Ã¢â¬Å"call to adventureÃ¢â¬ to journey to Denmark and fight Grendel for the Danes (l. 195). In this instance, Beowulf was given, perhaps by wyrd, an event in which he could choose to stay at home and not help or go fight for the lives of Danes. If this is the case, maybe wyrd had also given Beowulf his immense strengthÃ¢â¬âit was up to him to choose what he did with that strength. Wyrd, being a belief of heathens, is clearly going to contradict with some aspects of Christianity and the belief in God. In Christianity, the beliefs are based around God and his willingness to forgive, love, and protect his followers. One strong belief being that individuals are Ã¢â¬Å"saved by grace aloneÃ¢â¬ , meaning that God can deliver people from punishments and forgive them of sinful actions even if they are undeserving. This obviously contradicts with the element of wyrd that states although one may alter their life course, if they are Ã¢â¬Å"doomedÃ¢â¬ they cannot. Although different in ways that are quite obvious, there is one similarity between Christian beliefs and wyrd. This similarity is the idea of free will. Wyrd allows people to make their own choices, just knowing that in turn their future will indefinitely be affected by that choice and others. In the same way, Christianity says that God allows people to make choices for themselvesÃ¢â¬âhe doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t influence their decisions. In a way it makes sense that wyrd would incorporate some aspects of Christianity since Christian beliefs were beginning to spread during the time that wyrd was an accepted idea. To make it even more acceptable at the time, some Christian elements were probably added in so that the idea (of wyrd) could appeal to larger audiences. In Beowulf, there are constant elements of Christianity, one being on line 1657, where Beowulf states that his fight with GrendelÃ¢â¬â¢s mother could have gone badly if it werenÃ¢â¬â¢t for GodÃ¢â¬â¢s help. This obviously contradicts with wyrd because wyrd doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t believe in God or GodÃ¢â¬â¢s power over events. Overall, wyrd almost seems to be a curse on those who believe in it. This said because once one knows that their every choice is going to affect every aspect of their future and sometimes those around them, they are going to be consumed by the thought of whether or not they are making the Ã¢â¬Å"rightÃ¢â¬ choice. Wyrd, similar to fate/destiny, accompanied by free will, and different yet similar to Christianity, is a quite complicated concept, but seems to have ruled the lives of many a warrior in the Anglo Saxon culture and also clearly influenced characterÃ¢â¬â¢s choices in the epic, Beowulf. Wyrd in Beowulf free essay sample Wyrd is most easily described as continuous events happening around those that believe. It is also understood that the notion of wyrd meant that all of the events that occured in oneÃ¢â¬â¢s life affected the others [events]. Throughout the epic, Beowulf, wyrd appears to be a great influence. In some aspects wyrd is slightly similar to fate or destiny and incorporates free will, but the concept, as a practice of heathens, seems to contradict some Christian beliefs. Fate is defined as the development of events that are beyond control; events predetermined by a Ã¢â¬Å"supernatural powerÃ¢â¬ . Destiny, similarly, is defined as a sort of Ã¢â¬Å"hidden powerÃ¢â¬ that chooses what will occur in the future. Wyrd is similar to both of these terms in that is has much to do with the course of events in oneÃ¢â¬â¢s life and what the future has in store for them. However, the ideas of fate and destiny seem to be unstoppable while wyrd seemingly allows individuals to make their own choices knowing that their past and present choices will affect their future. We will write a custom essay sample on Wyrd in Beowulf or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Another contradiction with fate/destiny, is the fact that wyrd permits the alteration of predetermined occurrences through courageous deeds. Unfortunately, this is only permitted if a person is not already doomed (l. 572). If doomed, it is said that no amount of courage could save an individual from the course of events that he has made for himself; in this instance one must just reach acceptance of their future. With the idea of wyrd being that the events one chooses for themselves affect their future choices and therefore their future altogether, it is obvious that free will is a big part of wyrd. Yes, maybe wyrd has put you under the circumstances that it wants you to be in, but how you handle those circumstances is entirely up to you; this is where free will comes into play. It is analogous to the idea that aspects of intelligence are inheritedÃ¢â¬âyou may have been Ã¢â¬Å"givenÃ¢â¬ great intelligence, now you get to choose what youÃ¢â¬â¢re going to with it all. This is seen in Beowulf when Beowulf receives his Ã¢â¬Å"call to adventureÃ¢â¬ to journey to Denmark and fight Grendel for the Danes (l. 195). In this instance, Beowulf was given, perhaps by wyrd, an event in which he could choose to stay at home and not help or go fight for the lives of Danes. If this is the case, maybe wyrd had also given Beowulf his immense strengthÃ¢â¬âit was up to him to choose what he did with that strength. Wyrd, being a belief of heathens, is clearly going to contradict with some aspects of Christianity and the belief in God. In Christianity, the beliefs are based around God and his willingness to forgive, love, and protect his followers. One strong belief being that individuals are Ã¢â¬Å"saved by grace aloneÃ¢â¬ , meaning that God can deliver people from punishments and forgive them of sinful actions even if they are undeserving. This obviously contradicts with the element of wyrd that states although one may alter their life course, if they are Ã¢â¬Å"doomedÃ¢â¬ they cannot. Although different in ways that are quite obvious, there is one similarity between Christian beliefs and wyrd. This similarity is the idea of free will. Wyrd allows people to make their own choices, just knowing that in turn their future will indefinitely be affected by that choice and others. In the same way, Christianity says that God allows people to make choices for themselvesÃ¢â¬âhe doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t influence their decisions. In a way it makes sense that wyrd would incorporate some aspects of Christianity since Christian beliefs were beginning to spread during the time that wyrd was an accepted idea. To make it even more acceptable at the time, some Christian elements were probably added in so that the idea (of wyrd) could appeal to larger audiences. In Beowulf, there are constant elements of Christianity, one being on line 1657, where Beowulf states that his fight with GrendelÃ¢â¬â¢s mother could have gone badly if it werenÃ¢â¬â¢t for GodÃ¢â¬â¢s help. This obviously contradicts with wyrd because wyrd doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t believe in God or GodÃ¢â¬â¢s power over events. Overall, wyrd almost seems to be a curse on those who believe in it. This said because once one knows that their every choice is going to affect every aspect of their future and sometimes those around them, they are going to be consumed by the thought of whether or not they are making the Ã¢â¬Å"rightÃ¢â¬ choice. Wyrd, similar to fate/destiny, accompanied by free will, and different yet similar to Christianity, is a quite complicated concept, but seems to have ruled the lives of many a warrior in the Anglo Saxon culture and also clearly influenced characterÃ¢â¬â¢s choices in the epic, Beowulf.
Monday, December 2, 2019
Introduction Psychological measure determines psychotic properties like depression. The ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Depression Inventory (CDI) measures the level of depression in children. It is necessary to carry out this measure since it helps in identifying the children who are suffering from depression and decide on the appropriate intervention for them in time. This will help in improving their self esteem, educational achievement and peer relationship.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on The ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Depression Inventory (CDI) Measure specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The author of the article on Ã¢â¬Å"Depression in Children: ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Depression InventoryÃ¢â¬ (Crowley 1993) has used both the classical test score and generalizability theories. Classical test score considers just one measurement error at a given time ignoring the possibility of interaction effects of other sources of measuremen t. On the other hand, generalizability theory which considers the sources of error variance and the interaction effects of the sources. He uses generalizability to assess the level of depression symptomatology so as to give data that can be generalized to tests, items and even different occasions due to its reliability. His study focused on the use of both theories in measuring childhood depression. The individuals used in his study included both males and females between ages 11-16, grades 5-7 from all ethnic composition even though the ratio varied. He used the CDI in exploring psychometric properties. He demonstrated on how the classical and generalizability theories gave totally different estimations even on the same data. In clarification of conceptual issues of depression in children, Chartier Lassen(1994) in their article Ã¢â¬Å"Adolescent depression: ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Depression Inventory norms, suicidal ideation, and gender effects Ã¢â¬â weakÃ¢â¬ , demonstrate the nee d of studying the depressionÃ¢â¬â¢s normative patterns in an attempt of examining the contribution of gender, developmental level and other variables to such parameters. Unlike Crowley (1993) who focused on lower grades, Chartier and Lassen based their research on the analysis among the adolescents. In this research there was also an examination of the responses of adolescents on suicidal ideation just the same as SusanÃ¢â¬â¢s article to the extent at which some killed themselves and others opted to but due to proper thoughts, they thought otherwise. This research used subjects from grade 7-12 and thus regarded as the continuation of the CDI measure. This group constituted both students in junior and senior high school. In both articles, the CDI uses the 27 scale in analyzing the level of depression in an individual where scores between 11-19 indicate mild depression and 19-27 indicate severe depression.Advertising Looking for research paper on psychology? Let's see if we c an help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In the second article, the research shows that there are no noteworthy effects when considering grade levels but with gender, there were appreciable differences realized since women showed a high overall depression scores. In this article, the researcher carried out ANOVAs tests to analyze the test sores. The samples used consisted of the white, middle class urban adolescents unlike in the former research whose samples consisted of all races. Conclusion Both the articles have discussed on the usefulness of the ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Depression Inventory in determining the extent at which the children may be affected by depression. There are several similarities and differences between the two articles with regard to CDI. Among the differences discussed above, there are variations in the works of different researchers. References Chartier G. Lassen M. (1994). Adolescent Depression: ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Depression Inventory N orms, Suicidal Ideation, and Gender Effects Ã¢â¬â Weak. Web. Crowley S. (1993). Depression in Children: ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Depression Inventory. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American educational research association. Atlanta: GA This research paper on The ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Depression Inventory (CDI) Measure was written and submitted by user Addison Rivas to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.
Wednesday, November 27, 2019
Examples of Confidence intervals for means One of the major parts of inferential statistics is the development of ways to calculate confidence intervals. Confidence intervals provide us with a way to estimate a population parameter. Rather than say that the parameter is equal to an exact value, we say that the parameter falls within a range of values.Ã This range of values is typically an estimate, along with a margin of error that we add and subtract from the estimate. Attached to every interval is a level of confidence. The level of confidence gives a measurement of how often, in the long run, the method used to obtain our confidence interval captures the true population parameter. It is helpful when learning about statistics to see some examples worked out. Below we will look at several examples of confidence intervals about a population mean. We will see that the method we use to construct a confidence interval about a mean depends on further information about our population. Specifically, the approach that we take depends on whether or not we know the population standard deviation or not. Statement of Problems We start with a simple random sample of 25 a particular species of newts and measure their tails. The mean tail length of our sample is 5 cm. If we know that 0.2 cm is the standard deviation of the tail lengths of all newts in the population, then what is a 90% confidence interval for the mean tail length of all newts in the population?If we know that 0.2 cm is the standard deviation of the tail lengths of all newts in the population, then what is a 95% confidence interval for the mean tail length of all newts in the population?If we find that that 0.2 cm is the standard deviation of the tail lengths of the newts in our sample the population, then what is a 90% confidence interval for the mean tail length of all newts in the population?If we find that that 0.2 cm is the standard deviation of the tail lengths of the newts in our sample the population, then what is a 95% confidence interval for the mean tail length of all newts in the population? Discussion of the Problems We begin by analyzing each of these problems. In the first two problems we know the value of the population standard deviation. The difference between these two problems is that the level of confidence is greater in #2 than what it is for #1. In the second two problems the population standard deviation is unknown. For these two problems we will estimate this parameter with the sample standard deviation. As we saw in the first two problems, here we also have different levels of confidence. Solutions We will calculate solutions for each of the above problems. Since we know the population standard deviation, we will use a table of z-scores. The value of z that corresponds to a 90% confidence interval is 1.645. By using the formula for the margin of error we have a confidence interval of 5 Ã¢â¬â 1.645(0.2/5) to 5 1.645(0.2/5). (The 5 in the denominator here is because we have taken the square root of 25). After carrying out the arithmetic we have 4.934 cm to 5.066 cm as a confidence interval for the population mean.Since we know the population standard deviation, we will use a table of z-scores. The value of z that corresponds to a 95% confidence interval is 1.96. By using the formula for the margin of error we have a confidence interval of 5 Ã¢â¬â 1.96(0.2/5) to 5 1.96(0.2/5). After carrying out the arithmetic we have 4.922 cm to 5.078 cm as a confidence interval for the population mean.Here we do not know the population standard deviation, only the sample standard deviation. Thus we will use a table of t-scores. When we use a tabl e of t scores we need to know how many degrees of freedom we have. In this case there are 24 degrees of freedom, which is one less than sample size of 25. The value of t that corresponds to a 90% confidence interval is 1.71. By using the formula for the margin of error we have a confidence interval of 5 Ã¢â¬â 1.71(0.2/5) to 5 1.71(0.2/5). After carrying out the arithmetic we have 4.932 cm to 5.068 cm as a confidence interval for the population mean. Here we do not know the population standard deviation, only the sample standard deviation. Thus we will again use a table of t-scores. There are 24 degrees of freedom, which is one less than sample size of 25. The value of t that corresponds to a 95% confidence interval is 2.06. By using the formula for the margin of error we have a confidence interval of 5 Ã¢â¬â 2.06(0.2/5) to 5 2.06(0.2/5). After carrying out the arithmetic we have 4.912 cm to 5.082 cm as a confidence interval for the population mean. Discussion of the Solutions There are a few things to note in comparing these solutions. The first is that in each case as our level of confidence increased, the greater the value of z or t that we ended up with. The reason for this is that in order to be more confident that we did indeed capture the population mean in our confidence interval, we need a wider interval. The other feature to note is that for a particular confidence interval, those that use t are wider than those with z. The reason for this is that a t distribution has greater variability in its tails than a standard normal distribution. The key to correct solutions of these types of problems is that if we know the population standard deviation we use a table of z-scores. If we do not know the population standard deviation then we use a table of t scores.
Saturday, November 23, 2019
The Value of Self-Reflection for Success in Teaching In a profession as challenging as teaching, honest self-reflection is key. That means that we must regularly examine what has worked and what hasnt worked in the classroom, despite how painful it can sometimes be to look in the mirror. Once you self-reflect you then need to take your answers and turn them into positive, resolute statements that give you concrete goals on which to focus immediately. Be honest, work hard, and watch your teaching transform for the better! Ask Yourself These Tough Questions - And Be Honest! Where did I fail as a teacher in the past? Where did I succeed?What is my top teaching goal for the coming year?What can I do to make my teaching more fun while adding to my students learning and enjoyment?What can I do to be more proactive in my professional development?What resentments do I need to resolve in order to move forward more optimistically and with a fresh mind?What types of students do I tend to ignore or do I need to spend more time serving?Which lessons or units am I only continuing to perform out of habit or laziness?Am I being a cooperative member of my grade level team?Are there any aspects of the profession that I am ignoring out of fear of change or lack of knowledge? (i.e. technology)How can I increase valuable parental involvement?Have I done enough to foster a productive relationship with my administrator?Do I still enjoy teaching? If not, what can I do to increase my enjoyment in my chosen profession?Do I bring additional stress upon myself? If so, how can I decrease or eliminate it? How have my beliefs about learning and pedagogy changed over the years?What minor and/or major changes can I make to my academic program in order to directly increase my students learning? What Happens If You Refuse to Self-Reflect Put earnest effort and pure intention into your self-reflection. You dont want to be one of those stagnant teachers that drably presents the same ineffective and outdated lessons year after year. The unexamined teaching career can lead to becoming just a glorified babysitter, stuck in a rut and no longer enjoying your job! Times change, perspectives change, and you must change in order to adapt and remain relevant in the ever-changing world of education. Often its difficult to get motivated to change when you have tenure and cant be fired but thats precisely why you must undertake this effort on your own. Think about it while youre driving or doing the dishes. It doesnt matter where you self-reflect, only that you do it earnestly and energetically. Examine Your Teaching - Any Time of Year One of the best things about teaching is that every school year offers a fresh start. Make the most of this new beginning - any time of year! - and move ahead with the confidence that you are mindful and motivated to be the best teacher you can be! Edited By: Janelle Cox
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Ecology of Organisms - Lab Report Example Different pH levels affected the germination and growth rates of the radish seeds. This experiment was examining the effects of different pH level on germination of radish seeds. Water with a pH of 6, vinegar pH 3 and baking soda pH 10.5 were used. From the results, pH 3 radish never grew at a slow rate radish on pH 10.5 grew at a slower fairly rate and pH 6.5 grew the fastest. In vinegar, only 10% of the seeds germinated 40% in baking soda and 100% in water. Extremely low pH affected seed germination and maximum growth recorded at a neutral pH. In general, the lower the pH of the environment, the harder for radish seeds to germinate and to survive. It would be appropriate to conclude that plant species with a narrow range of pH are in trouble. Most plants germinate and grow best in a pH range of 7 to 9. The higher and lower pH levels, especially of 3 and 11, drastically reduce growth of plants and crops. Acid rain is a problem since it reduces the pH levels of soil to below 5. From the above experimental results, it suggests that acid rain may drastically reduce crops and plants
Tuesday, November 19, 2019
Why did Slavery Come to be the Dominant Labor System in the Southern Colonies - Essay Example The workforce in the agricultural sector in the southern colonies was mainly comprised of Europeans servants who worked on indenture basis. Although the Europeans still offered labor, African slaves were the better choice for planters because they were cheap to maintain and more productive. By mid 17th century there was a massive shift towards slave labor in the south since demand for food was rising with expanding markets. At this time Africans had started to be shipped and be sold as slaves to Americans. The climate and soil in the south were more favorable for agriculture than those of the north. This made the sound to be heavily dependent on labor for development of plantations. The south as stated above was an ideal region for agriculture all year round and crops like tobacco and rice thrived well. These crops are labor intensive and the lands were quite vast. Therefore, a huge potential of the southern lands remained untapped considering that there were many waterways where cro ps could be transported to overseas markets. As these farms grew labor shortages became intense and by the end of the 17th century more than 500 Africans had been bought as slaves to meet the demand (Schneider and Schneider 48). This trend was soon followed by withdrawal of indentured European servants since many had saved enough to buy their own land and start farming. America was quite big and unexploited by then and the Europeans found no reason not to venture into far away lands. The BaconÃ¢â¬â¢s Rebellion also saw many planters release white servants as they proved to be a danger to political stability. In this regards an alternative had to be sought to counter the exodus of the white servants. By mid 18th century a total of 235,000 Africans were in America and 85% of them worked in the southern colonies of Virginia, Georgia, North and South Carolina (73). African slaves however came to be fully exploited after failed trials were made on Native Americans (Rodriguez 106). Many of them died from European diseases while many others ran away since they knew the land better than the Europeans. This left the planters no choice but to take in African slaves. This followed a massive expansion of plantations in Georgia and South Carolina which translated to increased production levels of rice and tobacco. These slaves did a great deal of work which the white servants had refused to do for example draining of swamps. West Africans came in handy especially in rice growing plantations since they were familiar with the kind of work required as their mother lands grew rice. Slaves worked for 15 hours on a daily basis especially during the harvest season (Norton and Sheriff 27). One overseer was required to supervise a minimum of 20 slaves doing back-breaking work and when a slave lazed around, the overseer was supposed to whip them. The fact that slaves were cheap to buy and maintain saw planters buy them in masses so as to plant and cultivate more. As earlier indica ted slaves used to work for many hours per day which translated to bumper harvests and therefore booming plantation business. Many plantation owners like the Byrd family from Virginia turned to be quite wealthy (58). Such families came together to form elite classes of planters in the southern states who ensured that slave trade remained because it was a lifeline to their wealth. Southern colonies had vast fertile lands for agriculture where Europeans worked as servants on indenture basis. The vastness and the need to grow crops on large scale raised the need to have more workers. Slave trade was on the rise by mid 17th century and it saw many planters buy African slaves to work in
Sunday, November 17, 2019
Planning to Live Your Life Your Way Essay Goal setting is a formal process for personal planning. By setting goals on a routine basis you decide what you want to achieve, and then move step by-step towards the achievement of these goals. The process of setting goals and targets allows you to choose where you want to go in life. By knowing precisely what you want to achieve, you know what you have to concentrate on to do it. You also know what is merely a distraction. Goal setting is a standard technique used by top-level athletes, successful business-people and achievers in all fields. It gives you long-term vision and short-term motivation. It focuses your acquisition of knowledge and helps you to organize your resources. By setting sharp, clearly defined goals, you can measure and take pride in the achievement of those goals. You can see forward progress in what might previously have seemed a long pointless grind. By setting goals, you will also raise your self-confidence, as you recognize your ability and competence in achieving the goals that you have set. The process of achieving goals and seeing this achievement gives you confidence that you will be able to achieve higher and more difficult goals. Goals are set on a number of different levels: First you decide what you want to do with your life and what large-scale goals you want to achieve. Second, you break these down into the smaller and smaller targets that you must hit so that you reach your lifetime goals. Finally, once you have your plan, you start working towards achieving it. Starting to Set Personal Goals This section explains how to set personal goals. It starts with your lifetime goals, and then works through a series of lower level plans culminating in a daily to-do list. By setting up this structure of plans you can break even the biggest life goal down into a number of small tasks that you need to do each day to reach the lifetime goals. Your Lifetime Goals The first step in setting personal goals is to consider what you want to achieve in your lifetime, as setting Lifetime goals gives you the overall perspective that shapes all other aspects of your decision making. How to Start to Achieve Your LifetimeGoals Once you have set your lifetime goals, set a 25 year plan of smaller goals that you should complete if you are to reach your lifetime plan. Then set a 5 year plan, 1 year plan, 6 month plan, and 1 month plan of progressively smaller goals that you should reach to achieve your lifetime goals. Each of these should be based on the previous plan. Finally set a daily to-do list of things that you should do today to work towards your lifetime goals. At an early stage these goals may be to read books and gather information on the achievement of your goals. This will help you to improve the quality and realism of your goal setting. Finally review your plans, and make sure that they fit the way in which you want to live your life.
Thursday, November 14, 2019
Islam and Christianity There are hundreds of religions in this world. Of them two are the most prominent. Islam and Christianity. It is averaged that there are 750 million people practicing Islam, and another 1 billion practicing Christianity. The start of Islam is actually derived form Christianity, history books indicates that one night in the year 610, the first of many revelations came to Muhammad from God by way of the angel Gabriel (In Christianity this is the same Angel which brings the news of Jesus' birth, Jesus of course is the founder of Christianity). The message Muhammad received told him that there was but one God (Identical to the inception of the Ten Commandments), not many gods, as most Arabs believed. This God was creator of the world (In Christianity, it's documented in Genesis Chapter 1 verse 1, In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth), and He would one day judge mankind (This is also true in Christianity: "The Lord will judge his people." Hebrews 10:30). Both of these re ligions share almost the same framework, but they also differ in many ways. The word Islam means "surrender" or "submission," submission to the will of Allah, the one God. Muslims are those who have submitted themselves. The basic creed of Islam is brief: There is no God but Allah, and Muhammad is the Prophet of Allah. Islam teaches that there is one God, the creator and sustainer of the universe. This God, Allah, is compassionate and just. Because He is compassionate, He calls all people to believe in Him and worship Him. Because He is also just, on the Last Day He will judge every person according to his deeds. On the Last Day, all the dead will be resurrected and either rewarded with heaven or punished with hell. In Christianity one of the Ten Commandments states that "I am the Lord you God.....you shall have no other gods before me", also identical to Islam God is considered the creator of the universe, and he is also just. On the last day, or judgment day, the same holds true as in Islam in the Christian beliefs, the dead will be resurrected and either rewarded with heaven or punished with hell. Mankind is regarded as the crown of creation, entrusted by God with management of the whole created order. In Christianity this was Adam, who had dominion over all the animals and beasts of the earth.
Tuesday, November 12, 2019
Mass media is a powerful force in American pop culture. Images seen on billboards, television, magazines, and the big screen create lasting impressions. Sometimes these impressions have a negative impact. Mass media can be very detrimental to society if it is not criticized. Many groups of Americans are negatively affected by the images and content of mass media. African Americans are at the top of this list. Images of African Americans in television, music, and film are often less than stellar.Black men are often portrayed as drug pushers, pimps, thugs, and dead beat dads, while black women are portrayed as poor, lazy, and promiscuous. This needs to stop! That is a given! Question is, how are these negative images going to be stopped? Several steps should be taken in order to prevent these negative images in the media. The origins of these images need to be examined, and modern racism and prejudice need to be exposed. There may be some accuracy to the negative images of African Amer icans in the media, but that is no excuse.The media should focus more on uplifting people. African Americans have historically had a disadvantage when compared to their white counterparts. This should not be exploited for entertainment purposes. African Americans are often placed in roles that portray them as poorly educated. This dates all the way to minstrel shows! This is still a problem today! Americans are more comfortable laughing at blacks as appose to understanding blacks. The main problem with images of African Americans is that they are one dimensional.African Americans are diverse and come from a variety of backgrounds. If an African American is portrayed as a druggie or a convict, then there should be some reasoning behind this. People don't become drug addicts for the fun of it; they become drug addicts because they want to numb themselves from the pain and suffering of their everyday lives. Black men and women don't become criminals because they are horrible people. Th ey become criminals because they are taught that they have no other option!African Americans have to stand up for themselves and fight against the media. That is the only way things will change. While doing this, they may have to criticize other African Americans. This should be done with love. Black rappers, singers, and actors should be held with some responsibility. Black leaders like Oprah Winfrey and Bill Cosby have spoken out about this. Rappers, including Ludacris and 50 Cent have been criticized for their lyrics.It is unclear if they are rapping about their experiences in order to expose their struggles, or if they are exploiting the black struggle with their lyrics. Violence, sexuality, and the lack of education are unfortunately a part of African American society. The media should show this. Rappers and singers should perform songs about this. Black actors should play roles that depict this. Black actors, singers, and rappers should not exploit these disadvantages. Instead they should use their craft to create solutions to these problems. Drugs and violence should not be glamorized!
Sunday, November 10, 2019
Jacksonian Democracy refers to the political philosophy of United States President Andrew Jackson and his supporters. JacksonÃ¢â¬â¢s policies followed in the footsteps of Thomas Jefferson. JacksonÃ¢â¬â¢s Democratic Party was resisted by the rival Whig Party. More broadly, the term refers to the period of the Second Party System (1824-1854) when Jacksonian philosophy was ascendant as well as the spirit of that era. It can be contrasted with the characteristics of Jeffersonian democracy, which dominated the previous political era. JacksonÃ¢â¬â¢s equal political policy became known as Jacksonian Democracy, subsequent to ending what he termed a Ã¢â¬Å"monopolyÃ¢â¬ of government. The Jacksonian era saw a great increase of respect and power for the common man, as the electorate expanded to include all white male adult citizens, rather than only land owners in that group. In contrast to the Jeffersonian era, Jacksonian democracy promoted the strength of the presidency and executive branch at the expense of Congress, while also seeking to broaden the publicÃ¢â¬â¢s participation in government. Jacksonians believed in enfranchising all white men, rather than just the propertied class, and supported the patronage system that enabled politicians to appoint their supporters into administrative offices, arguing it would reduce the power of elites and prevent aristocracies from emerging. They demanded elected (not appointed) judges and rewrote many state constitutions to reflect the new values. In national terms the Jacksonians favored geographical expansion, justifying it in terms of Manifest Destiny. There was usually a consensus among both Jacksonians and Whigs that battles over slavery should be avoided. The Jacksonian Era lasted roughly from JacksonÃ¢â¬â¢s 1828 election until the slavery issue became dominant after 1850 and the American Civil War dra matically reshaped American politics as the Third Party System emerged.
Thursday, November 7, 2019
To what extent did organised c essays To what extent did organised crime and The Mafia cause Prohibition in the USA, 1919 to 1933, to fail? When answering this question, it is important to define the terms within it, specifically The Mafia. American history is inseparable with the role of the gangster and the mafia and its notoriety grew immensely during the time period. It was largely due to the Prohibition Laws that enabled them to get such a strong grip on society. Even after the amendment was repealed, they had established themselves within American life and culture and simply moved on into gambling, prostitution and security, all aspects that we associate the mafia with today. During the First World War, the government had placed a temporary ban on alcohol. It was seen as though alcohol, which was largely brewed by German companies, was inappropriate and led to social problems. It was also seen as using up vital crops that could help the war effort and many business leaders, John D. Rockefeller in particular, believed that workers would be more industrious if alcohol was removed from society. And so, in 1919, through the 18th Amendment to the Constitution, ...the manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors...is hereby prohibited.1 The Volstead Act, which was passed by Congress in 1919, gave the amendment a law and so could be enforced judicially. It copied the amendment, prohibiting the manufacture, transportation and sale of beverages containing more than 0.5 per cent alcohol. However, by 1933, prohibition had been repealed by the passing of the 21st amendment to the constitution. The period that saw this huge political and social change within society, the 1920s, was a difficult period for the USA and also the World. Many place the Great depression, caused by the Wall Street Crash in 1929 as a contributing factor to the repeal of prohibition. Many suggested that if...
Tuesday, November 5, 2019
It Isnt Easy, No Matter How Easy It Looks Ã¢â¬Å"Just because I made it here doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t mean it was easy. And just because I donÃ¢â¬â¢t seem overwhelmed doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t mean IÃ¢â¬â¢m not.Ã¢â¬ - Jen Wilde, Queens of Geek Writing is damn hard work. Nobody is a natural. When you see an author who makes it look easy, understand that that author worked their butt off learning grammar, plot, characterization, and flow then how to weave it all together to work. They might not have looked up the word SYNTAX and studied it, but they read enough good books until they could identify and emulate it. Most of writing block is bunk, and most of writing is a struggle. The writing that flows is the oddity, not the norm. Thats why you edit at least once or twice more after you think the story is perfect. The more difficult the writing task, the stronger you build your writing muscle. Your first book should take way longer than your sixth. Yes, youll edit less the more books you write, but you cannot edit No two writers are alike in how they write, how they structure their writing time, or how they come up with ideas. No two writers write with the same pace. Neither is right or wrong. When Im asked how I come up with ideas, how long does it take me to write a book, or when does writing become easier, I am at a loss for words. My answer is: I sit in a chair and write until the writing is done. When you leave the chair before youve accomplished a good days work, youve shortchanged yourself. Youve shirked your responsibility. You write until the writing is done. Until someone asks you how you made it look so easy.
Sunday, November 3, 2019
Scenario - Essay Example Furthermore, it forces one side to feel oppressed and correct, while the other feels guilt. Bringing up such tension simples show how racism is easy to rekindle and divisive even in its resolutions. In Ms. WilliamsÃ¢â¬â¢ place, I would present situations in foreign countries that show the devastating results not only of racism, but of counter-racism. More important than simply raising awareness about how racism has subsided nation-wide is to show the damage cause when groups do exactly what the students are doingÃ¢â¬âcoming together as a race to stand against, rather than unite with, another. I would show immediately the most basic case, which is how anti-Semitism developed in Nazi Germany as a result to a pro-white movement. This would illustrate how too much pride in oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own race can devastate. I would go on to give them harsh realities of genocide. One example is the Armenian genocide committed by Turkey, where European people suffered at the hands of another race. I would also mention that blacks in Africa are not only the oppressed, as they were in 20th Century America, but also have been violently oppressive. In the end, this would give the students a dose of reality rather than idealism. It would be a warning that conflicts have no victors, and that racism divides can divide into even smaller grudges which can end not only in hurt but in shocking loss of human life. This would be a lesson for all, and it would end with a reminder of why America gives us opportunity to live togetherÃ¢â¬âbecause our fathers and grandfathers managed to come to
Friday, November 1, 2019
Final Case Study Analysis - Research Paper Example Incidents of sexual harassment can be hard to account for. When activities are conducted through the use of verbal ability and physical sexual harassment is conducted, it can be accounted for. In certain cases, sexual harassment activities become very hard to account for, for example: using signs and symbols to harass another individual. In workplace environment, sexual harassment cases involve both the harasser and the person being harassed. These activities might be conducted by the people in the supervisory and management level and these activities may even be conducted by peers or people working at the same level of the organization or by even those who are not working within the organization, such as customers and suppliers. Sexual harassment effects the organization and work environment in a negative manner and there are ways through which such activities can be countered. Negative Impacts While analyzing the effects of sexual harassment on an organization and the people workin g with the organization, EEOC gives emphasis to the negative consequences occurring due to this act rather than taking into consideration the intent behind such acts. In order to identify whether and act is sexually harassing is dependent on whether the victim believes that the act was unwelcoming or unasked for. The main method through which an act can be defined as unasked for is the negative impacts of that particular act on the behavior of workers. Sexual harassment researchers have asserted several areas that have been negatively impacted due to such activity; these areas include psychological and physical health of the workers, career, and perception of self and social areas. Victims of sexual harassment cases report elevated amount of stress as a result of being harassed. The level of symptoms further elevate as the contact between the victim and the criminal increases, when victimsÃ¢â¬â¢ contact with those who witnessed the act taking place increases and when the victim ex periences retaliation as result of taking the complain to the authorities of the organization. Studies that are longitudinal in nature prove that the negative consequences of this activity last for a long period of time and even take the shape of future harassing activities if not countered (Paludi 96). One who is a victim of the act experiences several cognitive issues such as guilt of being victimized, escape from settings that are social in nature, shame of being harassed, fear, feeling of loneliness, agitation and decrease in the degree of self esteem. Physical issues experienced by the victim includes: abuse of substance, sleep depreciation, abnormal eating patterns and failure to concentrate. Further empirical studies prove that sexual harassment has negatively impacted the manner in which a victim used to work before being harassed and he even experiences negative impacts on his/her career goals (Goldstein 266). These negative impacts may or may not include increased level of leaves, alterations in goals related to career and alterations in working techniques. The person who is victimized may even experience distortion in important skills including interpersonal and social skills,
Wednesday, October 30, 2019
Midwestern Contemporary Art - Case Study Example The essay "Midwestern Contemporary Art Case" analyzes the Peter Smith and Keith Schmidt figures in contemporary art. Keith Schmidt has an established track record of success, and without a doubt has established himself as a reliable individual in terms of museum expansion. It follows that it's necessary to establish the chosen direction for the museum's operations. Having joined the board in 1981, Smith had experience with the MCA's operations; furthermore, when he joined the board, Ã¢â¬Å"he began pushing his desire that the MCA would attract more artists and a broader audienceÃ¢â¬ . It's clear that in these regards upon the beginning of Smith's involvement he was on-board with the museum's expansion. Furthermore, knowing Keith Schmidt's track record and understanding that the museum expansion would be a key emphasis, he approved his hiring. While Peter Smith contends that Schmidt has acted without proper care and in a reckless way, another individual at the art center indicated t hat, Ã¢â¬Å"each year, we always ended up with a balanced budget, so I feel that Schmidt acted very responsibly in dealing with fiscal matterÃ¢â¬ . Rather than truly believing that Keith Schmidt was acting recklessly, the evidence indicates that Peter Smith's disagreements with Schmidt were based more out of a difference of opinion on the direction of the museum. Furthermore, it's noted that the responsibilities of the board members is not management and fiduciary responsibility, but rather to oversee broader matter; these are the responsibilities.
Sunday, October 27, 2019
Potential Disadvantages Associated With Refurbishment Introduction From reading the chapter on the advantages of refurbishment, you could be thinking that refurbishment is the way to go because of all the positives surrounding it like, the social advantages, shorter time scale, environmental considerations, less money etc. But as we all know, for every argument, there is an up side and a down side. This chapter highlights the potential disadvantages, risks and problems that can occur on refurbishment projects so you can see the other side of the coin. To Refurbish or not to Refurbish ?. A fixed price contract to be constructed by a certain date involves alot of risks. These risks include whether the work can be performed at the agreed price, future price increases, weather conditions during the course of construction, competency of the contractors management, supervisors and workers. (Taggart, 2010) All of these risks and potential problems are taken into account on new build and refurbishment projects. But I will only be looking into the whole area of the potential problems and disadvantages that are associated with refurbishment projects, such as: Problems at tender stage. Added Health And Safety Considerations. Difficulty of locating data which requires investigations Added workload required to upgrade to meet existing regulations Problems involved with old/existing components and practices Extremely difficult to define accurate scope of works and accurate programme. 2.1 Problems at tender stage One of the disadvantages that come with refurbishment projects is the difficulty that can arise at tender stage. New build construction holds an advantage in this area as there are more procurement options available on a new build project than on a refurbishment project. This means that the principal disadvantage that refurbishment projects have at tender stage, is that the clients choice of tender options is limited for a number of reasons which will be stated below. An example of a procurement option that realistically would not be viable on a refurbishment project, would be Traditional Lump Sum Tendering. Some of the reasons as to why this would be an inappropriate method of procurement is as follows: It requires the work to be accurately foreseen and detailed (This is difficult on a refurbishment project as scope of work could prove difficult to predict). It fosters confrontation between employer and contractor (This is an important point as flexibility and good working relations are vital on a refurbishment contract). (Murphy, 2007) Another procurement option, which is not viable on a refurbishment project, is Open Tendering. Even though this option ensures maximum competition, there is the disadvantage that tenders may be received from firms who have neither the necessary financial resources nor the adequate technical knowledge and experience involved. Also other disadvantages associated with this type of tendering are that: There is a lack of control by the client over the competency of the builder he is employing. There is a waste of resources when many firms tender for the same job. (Seeley,1976) Even though there are a few options left for tendering on refurbishment projects, there are 2 main types which principally are better (typically on housing projects), which are (1) Selective tendering and (2) Negotiation with a selected contractor (1) Selective Tendering: This option is mainly referred on projects that are of great magnitude and complexity. But if selective tendering is chosen on a basic housing refurbishment scheme then the number of firms invited to tender should be 3 or 4. (2) Negotiation: This should be the principal option on a housing project because there is less time wasting involved. It also offers advantages as it allows for an early start to be made as less time is wasted at tender stage and also where the contractor chosen has exceptional experience of the scope of work covered by the type of work in question. (Seeley,1976)) This section should adequately describe how the limitation of procurement options at tender stage, is a disadvantage associated with the option of refurbishment. 2.2 Added Health and Safety Considerations Another one of the main disadvantages with Refurbishment is the added Health and Safety aspects, which have to be taken into consideration. The reason as to why the area of health and safety is so important is because, on a refurbishment project there are all of the considerations, which occur on a new build site, for example: Scaffolding Working at heights Danger of electrocution Working with dangerous instruments/ machines Danger of falling objects. Etc But also there are many more considerations, which have to be taken into account on a refurbishment project, which will not occur on a new build project, such as: Removal of asbestos Shoring (although this may be needed on rare occasions on new build contracts to support surrounding buildings). Danger of collapsing of old unstable houses Supporting decaying structural members so as to provide a safe place of work Danger of existing services All of these considerations are added to the general considerations, which means that the health and safety risk is almost doubled on refurbishment projects. I will address these health and safety considerations in much more detail in a separate chapter later on in this dissertation. 2.3 Difficulty of locating data, which requires investigations Another Disadvantage of refurbishing buildings is, the fact that when it comes to refurbishing older houses and buildings it is very difficult to locate data on the existing building which means that many different inspections and surveys must be carried out on the building before any type of works can commence which causes a loss in time and also these investigations and surveys can cost a lot of money to carry out, as the reports of these surveys can determine the scope and nature of the works to be carried out. There are many reasons as to why a survey is required, when a house or building is being refurbished such as: To prepare a measured drawing of the building to enable a scheme for alterations, improvements or extensions to be prepared. To advise on the repair and preservation of a building (including listed buildings). Work to be carried out to satisfy the requirements of the local or other authority, i.e. dangerous structure notices or public health notices. To prepare plans in connection with party wall agreements. This is usually required where alterations to a party wall are contemplated. (Noy, 1997) As you can see from above these surveys require great detail and could take a long time to carry out and also for the results to be drawn up which proves to be a large disadvantage. The procedure, which is involved in a typical survey of a house, is described below. Here is an example of a typical investigation procedure, which would be carried out on a typical 2-storey dwelling house. A preliminary inspection of the whole property to familiarise the surveyor with the type and layout. A detailed inspection of the main roof space and any subsidiary roof voids which are accessible. A room-by-room inspection at each floor level starting from the topmost floor. Inspection of accessible basements, cellars and sub floor areas. An examination of the elevations, including structure and finishes. Inspection of the site boundaries, outbuildings and surroundings. An examination of the elevations, including structure and finishes. Examination and testing of drainage and services. (Glover, 2001) You can see from above that these procedures must be carried out by a very competent and qualified person with an acquired knowledge of old properties and refurbishment techniques. Invariably it could cost you a large amount of money as well as time, depending on the complexity and size of the dwelling house in question. 2.4 Added workload required to upgrade to meet existing regulations. This is another potentially large disadvantage, as there can be a large possibility that the problem of the amount of work that is required to upgrade to meet regulations could cause you a lot of hardship and difficulties on refurbishment projects as there are so many regulations and requirements to comply with, that it could end up costing the client a lot of extra time and money depending on the age and condition of the building. Here, is a list of the main parts of the building regulations, which the building that is being refurbished will have to conform with: Part A- Structure Part B- Fire Safety Part C- Resistance to Moisture Part E- Sound Part F- Ventilation Part L- Conservation of Fuel and Energy Part M- Access for the Disabled Because there are so many parts to comply with, it could prove to be more beneficial to demolish and rebuild a house rather than refurbish the existing building as the costs involved in upgrading the building may result in the refurbishment project spending way over budget, and the client wishing that he had demolished and rebuilt the house rather than refurbishing it. This is why this particular section can prove to be a disadvantage of the refurbishment option. Because of the importance of this section I will be describing the whole area of upgrading buildings to meet regulations in a later chapter in this dissertation. 2.5 Problems involved with old/ existing practices. A large advantage that new build construction has over refurbishment is, because you are totally building a new structure from scratch, there are no problems associated with interaction between old building, temporary works, services and new work as well as having to match existing components with new components. (Murphy, 2007) This may not be a problem when refurbishing newer properties, but for example if you were refurbishing an old house with architectural details such as: old craft processes and old style antique details that are intended to be maintained and restored as well as repeated by the client in the refurbishment project that is to be undertaken, then this will cause many hold ups and time lost on the overall programme as well as much more money being spent because of the following reasons: Old processes such as specialist plastering and antique joinery are very time consuming and costly to reproduce because of the specialist nature of these processes. There are not many contractors around which carry out these types of old crafts which means that you could be a long time waiting. Because of the hold ups in these areas the rest of the project will suffer as a result, so therefore the project could drastically fall behind in time and could also go way over budget. This whole area could prove to be a big disadvantage if you are refurbishing a project under similar restrictions and restraints but these types of refurbishment are very rare unless you are refurbishing a listed building, but I will not be going into detail in the whole area of listed buildings in this dissertation. 2.6 Extremely difficult to define accurate scope of works and accurate programme. In my opinion, this problem is probably one of the biggest disadvantages associated with refurbishment as it affects the project in a lot of different fields. Firstly, when the scope of works and the programme cannot be specifically defined or finalised, then it means that there could be difficulties with regards to tendering and also planning as the contractor does not know for definite, what type of project that he is getting himself into. Secondly, if a particular detail occurs that is different from the planning specifications, then an investigation by the planning authorities may occur, which would directly affect the project. The statement Extremely difficult to define accurate scope of works and accurate programme can be proved by looking at the situations, which affect this problem that are: Late discovery of new circumstances: this is a feature that can occur on any size or type of refurbishment project. For example if you are refurbishing a house and you discover late into the project that you find that some aspect of the project does not comply with standards or regulations, which in turn means that alterations to the scope of works and maybe changes to plans will have to be carried out. Something like this could totally change the programme of the job and also the final accounts. Discovery of unforeseen conditions possible for almost entire project: This problem is another factor that proves the difficulty involved with trying to draw up an exact scope of works and programme. Even though a general site investigation may have been carried out at the start of the project, it is still entirely possible that unforeseen conditions may appear throughout the project. Some of these conditions may include: late discovery of decaying structural members, late discovery of absence of wall insulation,, dpc etc. Late discoveries similar to these are a constant feature of refurbishment work, that add to the problem of producing an accurate scope of works and programme for the project. After reading this section the reasons are apparent as to why an accurate scope of works and accurate programmes are very hard to predict due to the reasons stated above. You can also see how these areas in turn, affect other aspects of the project such as tendering, procurement and the adequate selection of a contractor for a refurbishment project.
Friday, October 25, 2019
Under U.S. GAAP, entities can generally recognize revenue when it is realized or realizable and earned. 1. Revenue can be recognized when it is realized or realizable. For revenue to be realized, a company must receive cash or claims to cash in exchange of goods, services, or other assets. Similarly, for revenue to be realizable, the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s goods, services, or other assets must be exchanged for other assets that are Ã¢â¬Å"readily convertible to known amounts of cash or claims to cashÃ¢â¬ (605-10-25-1). This means that the entityÃ¢â¬â¢s assets were not exchanged for cash or claims to cash, but instead, for another companyÃ¢â¬â¢s assets, such as short-term investments and government securities. 2. Revenue can be recognized when earned. Entities can earn revenue if the firm has Ã¢â¬Å"substantially accomplished what it must do to be entitled to the benefits represented by the revenuesÃ¢â¬ (605-10-25-1). For example, when companies substantially completed (a) provision of professional services, (b) delivery or production of goods, or (c) other activities that constitute its ongoing major or central operations, revenues is earned. Issue 2 (Ã¢â¬Å"Bill and HoldÃ¢â¬ ) Question: One of the issues faced by TerraSure relates to revenue recognition of finished goods that have not yet been delivered to customers due to inadequate storage space in customerÃ¢â¬â¢s warehouses. TerraSure has engaged in two different methods to deal with this situation. With the first method, TerraSure segregates the inventory within its own finished goods warehouse. In the second method, TerraSure ships customerÃ¢â¬â¢s inventory to a third party warehouse, where customers directly pick up their inventory. Background: Regarding Ã¢â¬Å"bill and holdÃ¢â¬ inventory, the SEC Staff Guidance states that these ... ...ordance with the terms of the arrangement, has been delivered or is available for immediate and unconditional delivery. 3. The license period of the arrangement has begun and the customer can begin its exploitation, exhibition, or sale. 4. The arrangement fee is fixed or determinable. 5. Collection of the arrangement fee is reasonably assured (926-602-25-1) Responses: Since TerraSure does not allow its customers to show the films until after its promotional activities begin, it cannot recognize revenue at the point of sale. To correctly recognize revenue for the film licensing contracts, customer must have all rights to exploit, exhibit, or sale (926-602-25-10). Even though the film is delivered to the customer, TerraSure must recognize revenue from licensing agreements not at the point of sale, but after the marketing department begin its promotional activities.
Thursday, October 24, 2019
Walking into a brand new school for the first time with a bundle of happiness and a twisted knot in your stomach indicating just how nervous you really are, sure is a way to start your first day of high school. It is natural on the part of every student to remember the first day at school. Recently, I just became a 9th grader. I remember the day as a unclear haze, that resembled a impossible puzzle to complete. The night before was spent with stories of high school back in the last couple decades or so. Ever so often was an, Ã¢â¬Å"Oh youÃ¢â¬â¢ll blend in,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"YouÃ¢â¬â¢ve grown so much,Ã¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"I cannot believe youÃ¢â¬â¢re already in high school.Ã¢â¬ Eventually the praise died down and it was time to climb into bed. The first thing I came to realize was a large building pacted tightly together within a compound wall. As small as I am, i couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t not seem to put the puzzle pieces together but luckily a map became my bestfriend. The schedule was confusing at first, since it was a long summertime before I had last read one. Nothing felt stable or ordered, everything seemed like it was going to be chaotic any minute. A few seconds later the bell rang, as I thought to myself how much I did not ever recall a harsh stop and ponder during the summer about miss the bell itself. The pattern went throughout the day as a class began, and after a long period a bell ended the period and began a new class. This went on for what felt like years. I walked through the halls and tried to categorize exactly what type of people I would be dealing with and IÃ¢â¬â¢ve realized the fact high school is anything but the type of events they describe in movies. Everyone seemed to fit each category perfectly, however it wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t quite the match. These faces appeared more normal and friendly. I remember my imagination of what high school was like when I was younger. I was just dying to experience all the new and exciting things that awaited me. From sports to boys to all the partying, I just wanted to know what everything was like and now that IÃ¢â¬â¢m finally here, I feel like I want to go back to when I was younger and not wish to grow up so much. As time goes on you find yourself getting to class earlier and earlier each day. Finding new routes, talking a little more, taking more time betweenÃ classes and the tension eases. The days do not get harder, but the work and study habits do. Later days of the school year are always easier then the first few. Some say that Ã¢â¬Å"high school was the best time of my lifeÃ¢â¬ , just like others say that high school was the worst time in their lives. To be honest, I am not sure which category I fall into yet. IÃ¢â¬â¢ve had a good start but I know high school wonÃ¢â¬â¢t be picture perfect for me. The only thing I can say is that I am learning.
Wednesday, October 23, 2019
Eric Schlosser wrote the book Ã¢â¬Å"Fast Food NationÃ¢â¬ to prove that the fast food industry is solely responsible for many problems that affect todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society. He begins his argument by explaining how the fast food industry came to be and who made it happen. Carl Karcher was the biggest starting pioneer of this new industry. After his marriage in 1939, he bought his first hot dog cart and Ã¢â¬Å"by the end of 1994, [he] owned 4 hot dog carts in Los Angeles. Ã¢â¬ His next fast food venture was his Drive-In Barbeque, but the competition was soon on. Ã¢â¬Å"Dozens of people were standing in line to buy bags of Ã¢â¬ËMcDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s Famous HamburgersÃ¢â¬â¢ (Schlosser 18, 19). Richard and Ã¢â¬Å"MacÃ¢â¬ McDonald had their own business, but were tired of having to find new carhops and cooks. So they began to use todayÃ¢â¬â¢s way of how fast food chains do business, assembly line style. This was the beginning of the rising power of the fast food industry. Schlosser then briefly describes the lives of many other fast food pioneers such as William Rosenberg who opened his first Ã¢â¬Å"doughnut shop in 1948, later calling it DunkinÃ¢â¬â¢ Donuts. Ã¢â¬ Glen Bell founded the restaurant chain Taco Bell, Keith Cramer founded Insta-Burger-King, Dave Thomas founded WendyÃ¢â¬â¢s, and Thomas Monaghan opened the first DominoÃ¢â¬â¢s. And Harland Sanders was the famous man of them all with his opening of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s first Kentucky Fried Chicken restaurant (Schlosser 22-23). Thanks to these men, America has her fast food. In order to explain how fast food became so popular in American culture, Schlosser continues his book with the complicated relationship between Ray Kroc and Walt Disney and their rise to fame. Ã¢â¬Å"Ray Kroc took the McDonald brothersÃ¢â¬â¢ Speedee Service System and spread it nationwide, creating a fast food empire (Schlosser 34). Ã¢â¬ Walt Disney created a fantasy world that fulfilled the American childÃ¢â¬â¢s dreams. Their great success was their uncanny ability of marketing their products to children. Even though Walt DisneyÃ¢â¬â¢s success arrived sooner, KrocÃ¢â¬â¢s company was most successful with the invention of the character Ronald McDonald in enticing AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s children. Ã¢â¬Å"Indeed, market research has found that children often recognize a brand logo before they can recognize their own name (Schlosser 43). Ã¢â¬ Playgrounds and even public school systems have fell victim to advertising. Playlands in McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s stores attract whole families with young, hungry, and noisy children. Believe it or not, children are the ones who made McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s Corporation as rich as it is today. Schlosser continues with stories and facts about what happens behind the counter. The mass number of fast food stores across America shows growing problems surrounding those who work at them. Crew members are only paid minimum wage and sometimes even less. They are prevented from being paid overtime, forming labor unions, and are forced to work only when they are needed. Workers going overtime are being paid for the extra time in food, not money. Robberies have been known to occur by current of former employees, not just third parties. McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s sees it only necessary to add security to its stores rather than increasing its employee wages to incentivize workers to try and prevent theft. McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s uses a combination of teenagers and illegal immigrants as its workforce supply. These workers are not concerned about being paid little since most do not have to support a family. With such a tremendous supply of labor, there is no incentive for McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s Corporation to increase employee wages. Franchisees of many fast food chains are increasingly upset about encroachment, multiple stores of the same chain within short distances of each other. It is terrible that corporations are not thinking too highly of their franchisees. But there is no incentive for these corporations to change since they own the land that their franchises sit on. Franchisees periodically sue their franchisors Ã¢â¬Å"about inflated price charged by suppliers, [and] about bankruptcies and terminations that seemed unfair (Schlosser 100). Ã¢â¬ The meat packing industry is by far the most dangerous industry in America. Countless injuries occur without being reported and all that seems to matter to the industry is meeting the daily schedules. The faster the employees are made to work, the more dangerous the work becomes. Workers are usually fired after they are severely injured and are sent to specific doctors who do not document these injuries and convince the workers that they are fine. Any defiance against the company and those workers are either fired or given harder and more dangerous tasks. The only thought that comes across meat packing company executives is profit margins. There is relatively no social justice for the employees of the fast food and meat packing industries. Their wages are minimal, they receive no benefits, and no bonuses are given. There is no excuse that can justify falsified reports and time clocks. This is one of the few points where private interests go too far. Minimized costs is a must have in the private sector, but not to the point where the lives and welfare of workers are at stake and laws are being violated. There is simply too much private interest alive in Congress which prevents any further prohibition of such behavior. These industries are technically victimizing their workers by using them as cheap labor. Fast food chains use advertising which targets children who are the most vulnerable and exploit that weakness to maximize profits. In addition to SchlosserÃ¢â¬â¢s arguments, fast food is the worst possible food that people can eat. The sad thing is children at such young ages are eating it and the parents either do not even know any better or they simply do not care just because it is good to their wallets. Eric SchlosserÃ¢â¬â¢s critical views towards the fast food and meat packing industries, I dear say, are very informative. In sharing his views, I believe things must be done to address these issues. If the end result means higher prices for fast food, I, unlike most of Americans, simply would not mind paying it because then at least the employees of both industries would be earning better wages, learning real life skills, and working in a safer environment especially for those who do the meat packing. The facts about the fast food industry in this book definitely prove to me what I have been supporting, working at a McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s for the past two years. I may actually consider finding a new job this summer with a company that pays me better, a company that does not have the kind of nasty reputation that the fast food chains have.